Sapphire is a variety of the mineral Corundum. Corundum is an aluminium oxide. In its pure state it is totally colourless. When this mineral contains other elements in its chemical composition, a variety of colours appear (blue, yellow, pink, green, purple, violet, orange, etc.). The red Corundum is called ruby, all the other colours are called sapphires and are among the most valuable gems.
The main sources are in: Myanmar (Ancient Burma), Sri Lanka (Ancient Ceylon), Kashmir, Cambodia, Vietnam and Australia.
One of the best known Sapphires is the 62.02 ct Rockefeller Sapphire, found in Burma. It was first set in a pin and later in a ring with two triangular diamonds. The Sapphire present in Princess Diana's engagement ring, with 12 ct. is also one of the best known in recent years.
For centuries, Sapphire has adorned royalty and the robes of clergy. For Medieval Kings, Sapphire protected them from evil and envy, becoming a favourite gem in rings and pins.
In the Middle Ages, the Clergy wore the Sapphire because it symbolised heaven. The Persians, on the other hand, believed that the sky was a reflection of the giant sapphire in which the world was placed upon.
The September birthstone is a symbol of sincerity, fidelity, truth and nobility.